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Also includes public and private business information and coverage of news and broadcast information sources. Marketing - Specialized Resources Business Source Complete Business Source Complete is the world's definitive scholarly business database, providing the leading collection of bibliographic and full text content. Regional Business News Covers regional business news sources including newspapers and business trade magazines. Cross Sound esti- mates that its largest ferry, the John H.
The Sea Jet 1, a knot, passenger-only fast ferry, burns about gallons of fuel on each trip Adam Wronowski, Cross Sound Ferry, personal communication, March 22, Port Jefferson Ferry employs about people during the peak season and about in the off-peak periods. Some of this expense is reimbursed by DHS funding. Cross Sound employs about employees in the peak season and about in the off-peak season. The company hires almost all its employees at an entry level, trains the personnel, and encourages all of its maritime employees to become licensed masters. Cross Sound Ferry, like most ferry operators, takes security concerns seriously and has an active training pro- 24 Guidelines for Ferry Transportation Services.
Employees are trained to be aware and participate in drills and exercises.
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In addition, the company used federal funds to purchase lighting and surveillance equipment to provide addi- tional security. Financial Structure All ferries providing service between Connecticut and Long Island are privately owned and operated. The only government funding they have received has been for engine upgrades relat- ing to emissions reductions and security enhancements. The peak periods for these services are generally on weekends and holidays.
In addition, commuter tickets are also available. These systems provide the ability to manage vessel capacity and ensure the capacity is well used throughout the day. Market studies conducted by each company indicate that the majority of ferry passengers live on Long Island. The other 45 percent of passengers are distributed throughout Central and Eastern New England. In addition, Port Jefferson Ferries reports that about 70 percent of its walk-on, return-day-trip passengers originate in Bridgeport these trips make up about 20 percent of their total passengers.
Funding Sources As all of the operators in this case study are privately owned, each garners revenues from a vari- ety of sources. Cross Sound Ferry and Port Jefferson Ferry obtain revenues through passenger fares, onboard and terminal concession stands, and restricted federal emission grants. Viking Ferries also has a large charter and private rental business that supplements their passenger ferry service.
Ferry Case Studies 25 Table In interviews, their executives expressed comfort with their maritime operations, their ability to maintain and operate vessels, and their ability to provide necessary capital enhancements needed to maintain market share. Both operators, however, identified government leadership and public policy as important to enhancing the ability of the marine transportation mode to divert automobiles from the highway system and to create more sustainable transportation systems.
Both Cross Sound Ferry and Port Jefferson Ferry have experienced challenges in expanding their services due to local concerns and the high financial expense and permitting maze of investing in terminal facilities. Environmental and Regulatory Issues From a systems perspective, both Cross Sound Ferry and Port Jefferson Ferry noted that fer- ries could decrease energy consumption and help achieve other public policy goals. However, there is not a consistent recognition of the importance of and the opportunities provided by a marine highway system. Ferries carry about 2. Travel between Connecticut and Long Island can be accomplished via ferry or automobile.
The ferry operators think of their catchment areas as an oblong circle where their Long Island terminals are located west of the midpoint. Trips within that oblong are ferry-competitive but trips outside are not. For comparison, Table provides data for the trip from Huntington, New York, to Bridgeport, Connecticut, on highway and ferry.
Table shows the change in travel time and fuel use with a fast-ferry option. Table provides data for a different trip from Long Island to New London via either high- way or ferry. As ferry speeds increase or highway travel times decrease , the ferry catchment area increases because the ferry travel times become more competitive than the highway travel times.
In congested corridors, ferry travel times to the ferry terminal are com- 26 Guidelines for Ferry Transportation Services Table This is the IRS allowance. Conventional ferries allow for automobile use at either terminal, but the passenger-only, fast-ferry market is limited by the need to complete trips beyond the immediate ferry terminal area.
As a result, while using passenger-only fast ferries could be more fuel efficient than driving per Table , the market for these trips may be limited and hence not financially viable. Land Use Issues Cross Sound Ferry and Port Jefferson Ferry mentioned that their Long Island host communi- ties are sensitive to increases in service and expansion of terminal facilities.
However, both com- panies recognize that there is latent demand that cannot currently be accommodated and that results in additional highway trips and vehicle miles traveled. In New London, the town is interested in developing a multimodal center where ferries are one piece of the puzzle. The multimodal center is seen as an economic catalyst for redevelop- ment in the town center.
Bridgeport is faced with urban design issues that limit the ability to create optimal pedestrian and bicycle environments that encourage movements between the train station and ferry termi- nal. It is unlikely that changes in the urban infrastructure scheme will change in the near future to allow for redevelopment to occur. Port Jefferson and Orient Point communities have both restricted land use growth around the ferry terminals. Emergency Response After the attacks of September 11, , ferries provided the only transportation from Long Island.
While there is no formal emergency response system that the ferry operators work with, a more structured arrangement is being considered by local and state authorities. Ferry Case Studies 27 Table Fast-ferry alternative assumes a 25 mile drive to ferry terminal and then walk-on passengers.
Rowboats connected Manhattan with Brooklyn before the Revolution. Service to Staten Island began in the s. New York City records indicate that by eight ferries were authorized to operate across the Hudson River to New Jersey. After the Civil War, as both commerce and rail- way traffic increased, ferry traffic also continued to grow. The Hudson Tubes opened in and immediately diverted passengers from the ferry services, although the Pennsylvania Railroad continued to operate its ferries from Jersey City.
The Hudson Tubes carried almost 50 million passengers annually just a few years after opening and now carry about 85 million passengers.
What Makes the Introduction Different from the Background?
In , the Pennsylvania Railroad opened Pennsylvania Station on 34th Street, a terminus for rail connections to New Jersey, through an extensive network of commuter trains and two under- water tunnels. These tunnels now carry about 45 million passengers annually under the Hudson. About 34 million vehicles annually now use the Holland Tunnel. In , the George Washington Bridge opened between New Jersey and Manhattan and soon carried more than 5 million vehicles annually.
The Lincoln Tunnel now carries more than 42 million vehicles annually, and the PABT handles about , passengers daily. The George Washington Bridge serves more than million vehicles each year. These ferries were among the first to cease operations when the city built the Brooklyn and the Williamsburg Bridges. In , the Long Island Railroad was extended into Pennsylvania Sta- tion connecting Manhattan to Brooklyn and Queens directly with fast electric trains.
As a result of these new fixed links, ferry service dwindled. Passengers either took direct trains into Manhattan or drove their automobiles into the city.
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The last scheduled ferries operated from Hoboken to Manhattan in Wikipedia, accessed March 4, Revival, Growth, and Stabilization By the early s, the cross-Hudson fixed links were straining to keep up with demand. At the same time, industrial brownfield sites on the New Jersey side of the Hudson River became available as industry moved to new locations and factories became obsolete. The sites were large, which allowed for master planning and dense, efficient development.
Additionally, these sites had views of Manhattan and direct access to the Hudson River.